University of Illinois Extension & Outreach Illinois Agronomy Handbook Chapter 6. Hay. Frost seeding can be an effective and inexpensive method to improve the quality and quantity of forage. Forage demand/supply relationships should be evaluated in both short- and long-term plans, allowing for emergency periods such as drought. It shouldn't come as a surprise that the conclusions from these efforts all point to several very important issues that must be met for successful interseedings. The seeds will wait. It is important to realize that hay … Most legumes need good drainage, pH, fertility and species-specific harvest management for pasture halage or hay. Reducing competition from the existing stand will help the new seedlings establish. One common misconception about frost seeding is that spreading the seed on top of snow works best. Close grazing in the fall or spring, ahead of interseeding, will help to reduce sod competition. Frost seeding does not work on sandy soils where there is no swelling and shrinking associated with the freeze-thaw cycle. Figure 1. Birdsfoot trefoil is less successful due to slow establishment. Frost seeding is a popular option to improve forage yield and quality of pasture and hay land. Freeze-thaw cycles then provide shallow coverage of the seed, which help shield from early spring rains. White Clover- This is a low-growing short lived perennial. Harrow the pasture to break up manure, old hay piles, etc. A productive pasture is contingent upon a good plan, careful management, and clear goals. The main advantage to frost seeding is the ability to establish desirable species into an undisturbed sod at a low per acre cost. In general, frost seeding does not work as well with grasses. Frost Seeding Red Clover in Hay Fields and Pastures By Dan Hudson / March 20, 2013 / Comments Off on Frost Seeding Red Clover in Hay Fields and Pastures Sugaring season is here, and that means that it is also time to frost-seed red clover in your pastures and hay fields if you have it in your mind to do it at all. Drills vary in their effectiveness based on ability to penetrate sod, provide uniform seed depth and metering, and ability to cover furrow. Since grass seed is light, it will not throw as far as heavier legume seeds when broadcast. Note: Timothy and Reed Canarygrass are not recommended. Available at: Morrison, J. As shown, in the figure below, average first cutting yields of grasses the spring after late summer seeding, when harvested at the boot stage, ranged from 1.5 t/a for some grasses down to less than 0.5 t/a on first cutting depending on when they were sown the previous fall. Alternatives to seeding with machinery exist. The repeated freezing and thawing will cause some of the seed to fall into soil cracks and germinate. To increase this method's success, spread seed on the thinnest pasture sod areas first and on areas where bare soil has been exposed due to heavy grazing or disturbance. Because ryegrass is longer-lived, a third application of 40 to 50 lbs. Available at: Undersander, D. 2006. Another option is to take a spring hay cutting before returning to full grazing. Subscribe to receive email alerts when new information is posted. There are several benefits to adding legumes to pastures including higher quality forage as well as nitrogen to support grass growth. Opening of the grass sod, shallow seed placement, and seed coverage are required. “I … Frost seeding. Ad apted from Penn State Aronomy Facts g #32 by Mavin H.Hall r and Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992. When you get rain, you'll have grass. One of the main hesitations growers have is a lack of information regarding overseeding cool-season forages into dormant grass/legume systems. To begin, fall grazing or mowing down to a 2-inch height will slow regrowth of the existing stand in the spring. This article was originally published on March 6, 2019. The optimum practice is to seed early in the spring after the snow is gone but while the ground is still frozen. Frost seeding of forages. University of Wisconsin Extension bulletin. "When it's time to plant, drill the seed and wait for the rain. Although legumes are the most successful for this system, some grasses can also be successfully frost seeded. 2009. Frost seeding is a popular option to improve forage yield and quality of pasture and hay land. Introduced The success of frost seeding establishment c… Closely grazing or mowing pastures in the fall will also help to expose the soil. the author is required. Kim Cassida and Phil Kaatz . If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from For bermudagrass, Redfearn recommends patience. When frost seeding with a broadcast seeder, make sure to first determine the effective seeding width to avoid possible overlap of seed. The best species to select depends on the goal one has for the field. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension. Frost seeding forages into established pastures. without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Integrated Crop Management News, A 60% to 70% frost seeding establishment rate has been reported by many farmers (Undersander, 2006). Lone Spruce farm 3,729 views. Interseeding success depends a lot on paying attention to details, timeliness, careful management of sod completion, controlling seeding depth to no deeper than one-fourth to one-half inch, and a little bit of luck with weather. Once the regrowth following hay harvest is 10-12 inches tall, grazing can begin. The main advantage to frost seeding is the ability to establish desirable species into an undisturbed sod at a low per acre cost. However, take care to avoid overgrazing which can result in young seedlings being consumed before adequate establishment. The principle of frost seeding is to broadcast forage seed in the early spring when the ground freezes at night and thaws during the day. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a cool-season grass that originated in southern Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass. of N per acre may be needed in early spring when ryegrass is used for late spring grazing, hay, or as a silage crop. The effectiveness of overseeding, whether done in the spring or fall, is enhanced when it is combined with lawn aeration.The process of extracting small cores of soil from the lawn is also called core aeration. By later cuttings the stands had recovered and all yielded well. See ISU Extension and Outreach publication Interseeding and No-Till Pasture Renovation for more suggested seeding rates and guidelines. Overseeding legumes in pastures is a good way to reduce dependence on high-priced nitrogen (N) fertilizer and increase summer productivity and quality in pastures. Freeze-thaw cycles then provide shallow coverage of the seed, which help shield from early spring rains. Invest in a soil analysis before planting. Other legumes, such as white clover and birdsfoot trefoil, also can be frost seeded but with less success than red clover. Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished * March and early April are generally a good time to overseed as long as you have several days of thawing and freezing. Many farmers frost seed 25% of their acreage each year so that they are spreading their risk over different years. 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